Key spray application – Injecting added substances into pipes
Spray nozzles are commonly used to inject additives into gas or oil pipes. A nozzle is inserted into the pipeline to add anti-corrosives or other substances to the flowing liquid or gas. However, during insertion, the nozzle opening size must be minimized to preserve the integrity of the pipeline. This makes the profile of the nozzle being used important, as a larger profile requires a bigger opening.
The spray produced should generally be in the form of a full cone pattern with small droplets to ensure quick and even mixing with the liquid or gas in the pipeline. Moreover, the flow rate of the additive must remain small to prevent over-dosing the pipeline. However, many nozzles that produce such spray patterns (low flow rate, fine sprays with full cone patterns) have a large profile, which necessitates cutting a large insertion opening in the pipeline.
Another challenge in injecting substances into a high-velocity gas flow is the ability of the spray to penetrate the flow. While a fine spray is effective for mixing in slower-moving flows, it may not reach the edges of the line in very fast flows and instead get carried along by the flow, resulting in areas of untreated gas.
Suitable nozzles for infusion include the misting nozzles in the P series, or for smaller applications, the low flow rate variation in the PJ series. For larger applications or fast gas flows, a spiral TF or L series nozzle may be appropriate as these nozzles produce larger drops, which provides the spray with more energy.
The WTZ full cone extraneous spin nozzle has the advantage of spraying in the opposite direction to the feed pipe, which can significantly reduce the need for cutting the line.
Key spray application – Fire assurance systems
Fire and explosion pose a constant threat to the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. Stringent safety regulations are in place to help mitigate this risk to life and property. It is important to note that the term "fire protection" refers to a system that is designed to protect an asset from the effects of fire, rather than a fire suppression system that helps put out fires or a fire prevention system that helps prevent fires from occurring in the first place.
For fire protection systems, SYNERGY offers a professional range of spiral nozzles known as the N series. These nozzles combine fine droplets with excellent spray reach and impact required to operate through the often strong thermal currents generated by fire. The combination of small and large drops from these nozzles means that the cooling power of small drops can be effectively delivered to the fire by being carried by the larger drops. The N series of firefighting nozzles are approved by Lloyd's, FM, and UL.
Key spray application – Fire/blast prevention systems
The oil, gas, and petrochemical industry faces constant risk of fire and explosion. To mitigate this risk to life and property, strict safety regulations are in place. Fire/blast prevention systems are designed to prevent ignition or provide a low level of moisture to prevent the ignition of volatile substances. To achieve this, very low levels of water must be sprayed, and therefore, the firefighting nozzles are generally not suitable. Instead, lower flow rate misting nozzles like the Micro Whirl or PJ diversion nozzle are typically used.
In addition, blast prevention becomes a critical aspect when cleaning tanks that previously contained volatile substances. Tank cleaning systems often use rotating nozzles, which can potentially generate static charges or sparks due to the movement of metal parts. SYNERGY offers various anti-spark tank cleaning nozzles that are suitable for use in highly hazardous conditions.
Key spray application – Cooling systems
Spray nozzles play a crucial role in cooling various processes in the petrochemical industry:
1. Cooling of gases: A fine mist of coolant can be sprayed into the gas stream to cool it down.
2. Cooling of liquid beds: Spray nozzles can be used to cool down liquid beds, such as those found in distillation columns.
3. Cooling of reaction tanks: Spray nozzles are also used to cool reaction tanks during chemical processes.
The process of spray cooling is complex and is discussed in detail on the spray cooling systems application page.
Liquid synergist breaking extinguish nozzles
The liquid synergist breaking extinguish nozzles made by SYNERGY are commonly used in the cooling process of liquid reactant breaking systems in the reaction facility. The hydrocarbons produced in the reaction need to be cooled rapidly to prevent any further reactions from occurring after the desired breaking point has been achieved.
To withstand the hot and harsh environment in the reaction chamber, the nozzle and spear must be made of highly temperature-resistant alloys like cobalt composite 6 or tantalum.
Key spray application – Gas cleaning
Gas cleaning, the removal of pollutants from gas streams, is a crucial application in the petrochemical industry. This can involve the elimination of impurities from vent gases before their release into the air or as part of the refining process itself.
Typically, gas cleaning requires the use of fine droplets, as they provide a larger surface area per unit volume. This larger surface area allows for faster and more efficient reactions. However, the overall size and speed of the gas flow being treated must be taken into account. In situations with large or fast gas flows, fine sprays may not have enough energy to reach the edges of the flow and fail to remove all the impurities. In these cases, a balance between fine droplets and heavier drops with more energy must be achieved.